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Packer by HashiCorp : Second Steps?

In a previous post I mentioned my first steps with Packer by HashiCorp. This is a brief update to that post.

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I’ve created a new box called “oracle-7” for Oracle Linux 7 + UEK. This will track the latest OL7 spin. You can find it on Vagrant Cloud here.

Packer by HashiCorp : First Steps

A few days ago I wrote about some Vagrant Box Drama I was having. Martin Bach replied saying I should build my own Vagrant boxes. I’ve built Vagrant boxes manually before, as shown here.

The manual process is just boring, so I’ve tended to use other people’s Vagrant boxes, like “bento/oracle-8”, but then you are at the mercy of what they decide to include/exclude in their box. Martin replied again saying,

“Actually I thought the same until I finally managed to get around automating the whole lots with Packer and Ansible. Works like a dream now and with minimum effort”

Introducing packer: building immutable infrastructure in the cloud

After having spent a bit of time with Packer to create Vagrant base boxes it was time to focus on the cloud. I have referenced Packer multiple times in my cloud talks as a popular way to create immutable infrastructure and/or custom images, and I wanted to share how you could potentially make use of the technology

Be aware that this is a post about cloud technology. If you are following along, be aware that you will incur cost.

Introducing Packer: building Vagrant base boxes hands-free

I have referred to Packer in some of my cloud-related presentations as an example of a tool for creating immutable infrastructure. In addition to the cloud, Packer supports a great many other build targets as well. Since I work with VirtualBox and Vagrant a lot, Packer’s ability to create Vagrant base boxes is super awesome. Combined with local box versioning I can build new Vagrant systems in almost no time. More importantly though, I can simply kick the process off, grab a coffee, and when I’m back, enjoy a new build of my Oracle Linux Vagrant base box.

Using wallets with dbca in Oracle 19c

One of the features I haven’t seen blogged about is the option to provide SYS and SYSTEM passwords (among other parameters) to dbca via a wallet. This is documented in chapter 2 of the Database Administration Guide 19c.

[oracle@server1 ~]$ dbca -silent -createDatabase -help
...
        [-useWalletForDBCredentials  Specify true to load database credentials from wallet]
            -dbCredentialsWalletLocation 
...

I was curious how to use this feature as it might provide slightly better security when deploying new databases via dbca. It turned out it wasn’t too hard in the end, and I decided to briefly put my efforts into this short article.

Versioning for your local Vagrant boxes: handling updates

In my last post I summarised how to enable versioning for Vagrant box outside Vagrant’s cloud. In this part I’d like to share how to update a box.

My environment

The environment hasn’t changed compared to the first post. In summary I’m using

  • Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
  • Virtualbox 6.1.6
  • Vagrant 2.2.7

Updating a box

Let’s assume it’s time to update the base box for whatever reason. I most commonly update my boxes every so often after having run an “yum upgrade -y” to bring it up to the most current software. A new drop of the Guest Additions also triggers a rebuild, and so on.

Packaging

Once the changes are made, you need to package the box again. Continuing the previous example I save all my boxes and their JSON metadata in ~/vagrant/boxes. The box comes first:

Versioning for your local Vagrant boxes: adding a new box

I have been using Vagrant for quite some time now can’t tell you how much of a productivity boost it has been. All the VMs I have on my laptop are either powered by Vagrant, or feed into the Vagrant workflow.

One thing I haven’t worked out though is how to use versioning outside of Vagrant’s cloud. I don’t think I have what it takes to publish a good OS image publicly, and rather keep my boxes to myself to prevent others from injury.

My environment

While putting this post together I used the following software:

  • Ubuntu 20.04 LTS acts as my host operating system
  • Virtualbox 6.1.6
  • Vagrant 2.2.7

This is probably as current as it gets at the time of writing.

Passing complex data types to Ansible on the command line

Earlier this year I wrote a post about passing JSON files as --extra-vars to ansible-playbook in order to simplify deployments and to make them more flexible. JSON syntax must be used to pass more complex data types to Ansible playbooks, the topic of this post. Unlike last time though I’ll pass the arguments directly to the playbook rather than by means of a JSON file. This should cover both methods of passing extra variables.

Ansible tips’n’tricks: defining –extra-vars as JSON

While I’m continuing to learn more about Ansible I noticed a nifty little thing I wanted to share: it is possible to specify –extra-vars for an Ansible playbook in a JSON document in addition to the space-separated list of key=value pairs I have used so often. This can come in handy if you have many parameters in your play and want to test changing them without having to modify your defaults stored in group_vars/*.yml or wherever else you stored them. If you do change your global variables, you can almost be certain that your version control system notifies you about a change in the file and it wants to commit it next time. This might not be exactly what you had in mind.

For later reference, this article was composed using Ubuntu 18.04.4 LTS with all updates up to February 3rd, 2020.

Vagrant tips’n’tricks: changing /etc/hosts automatically for Oracle Universal Installer

Oracle Universal Installer, or OUI for short, doesn’t at all like it if the hostname resolves to an IP address in the 127.0.0.0/0 range. At best it complains, at worst it starts installing and configuring software only to abort and bury the real cause deep in the logs.

I am a great fan of HashiCorp’s Vagrant as you might have guessed reading some of the previous articles, and as such wanted a scripted solution to changing the hostname to something more sensible before I begin provisioning software. I should probably add that I’m using my own base boxes; the techniques in this post should equally apply to other boxes as well.