Here’s a couple of extracts from a trace file after I’ve set optimizer_dynamic_sampling to level 3. I’ve run two, very similar, SQL statements that both require dynamic sampling according to the rules for the parameter – but take a look at the different ways that sampling has happened, and ask yourself what’s going on:
Statement 1 produced this sampling code:
In part 1 of this mini-series we looked at the effects of costing a tablescan serially and then parallel when the maxthr and slavethr statistics had not been set.
In part 2 we looked at the effect of setting just the maxthr - and this can happen if you don’t happen to do any parallel execution while the stats collection is going on.
In part 3 we’re going to look at the two variations the optimizer displays when both statistics have been set. So here are the starting system stats:
The title is a bit of a joke, really. It’s mirroring a title I used a little over a year ago “Logical Tuning” and reflects my surprise that a silly little trick that I tried actually worked.
If you don’t want to read the original article, here’s a quick précis – I started with the first query, which the optimizer executed as a filter subquery, and rewrote it as the second query, which the optimizer executed as two anti-joins (reducing the execution time from 95 seconds to 27 seconds):
Actually, there hasn’t been a “maxthr – 1″, I called the first part of this series“System Stats”. If you look back at it you’ll see that I set up some system statistics, excluding the maxthr and slavethr values, and described how the optimizer would calculate the cost of a serial tablescan, then I followed this up with a brief description of how the calculations changed if I hinted the optimizer into a parallel tablescan.
Several years ago I wrote the following in “Cost Based Oracle – Fundamentals” (p.47):
The maxthr and slavethr figures relate to throughput for parallel execution slaves. I believe that the figures somehow control the maximum degree of parallelism that any given query may operate at by recording the maximum rate at which slaves have historically been able to operate—but I have not been able to verify this.
Browsing the internet recently, I discovered that that no-one else seems to have published anything to very my comment, so I decided it was about time I did so myself. I’m going to work up to it in two blog notes , so if you do happen to know of any document that describes the impact of maxthr and slavethr on the optimizer’s costing algorithms please give me a reference in the comments – that way I might not have to write the second note.
In my last post I made a comment about how the optimizer will use the new format of the index hint to identify an index that is an exact match if it can, and any index that starts with the same columns (in the right order) if it can’t find an exact match. It’s fairly easy to demonstrate the behaviour in 11g by examining the 10053 (CBO) trace file generated by a simple, single table, query – in fact, this is probably a case that Doug Burns might want to cite as an example of how, sometimes, the 10053 is easy to interpret (in little patches):
A recent posting on OTN came up with a potentially interesting problem – it started roughly like this:
I have two queries like this:
select * from emp where dept_id=10 and emp_id=15;
select * from emp where dept_id=10 and emp_id=16;
When I run them separately I get the execution plan I want, but when I run a union of the two the plans change.
Actually it’s probably not the NOT IN that’s nasty, it’s the thing you get if you don’t use NOT IN that’s more likely to be nasty. Just another odd little quirk of the optimizer, which I’ll demonstrate with a simple example (running under 18.104.22.168 in this case):
I thought I’d try to spend some of today catching up on old comments – first the easier ones, then the outstanding questions on Oracle Core.
The very first one I looked at was about pushing predicates, and the specific comment prompted me to jot down this little note about the 10053 trace file (the CBO trace).
An interesting little problem appeared on the Oracle-L mailing list earlier on this week – a query ran fairly quickly when statistics hadn’t been collected on the tables, but then ran rather slowly after stats collection even though the plan hadn’t changed, and the tkprof results were there to prove the point. Here are the two outputs (edited slightly for width – the original showed three sets of row stats, the 1st, avg and max, but since the query had only been run once the three columns showed the same results in each case):