Ever wonder about Big Data and what exactly it means, especially if you are already an Oracle Database professional? Or, do you get lost in the jargon warfare that spews out terms like Hadoop, Map/Reduce and HDFS? In this post I will attempt to explain these terms from the perspective of a traditional database practitioner but getting wet on the Big Data issues by being thrown in the water. I was inspired to write this from the recent incident involving NSA scooping up Verizon call data invading privacy of the citizens.
The DBA role can sometimes feel like a mix of detective, crime writer and DBA all thrown together. What do I mean by that? When you hit some problems you have to play detective, trying to find clues to what is going on. Once you’ve started to gather clues, you have to play crime writer and put them together to form a coherent story that explains what is going on. Once you have the outline of your crime story you can start looking at the facts again and see if they fit with your story. If they do, your story may just be correct. If they don’t, you probably need to check the accuracy of the facts and do some rewriting of the story until the two things fit together. Once things seem to fit, you can then get busy trying to arrest the villain, or fix the problem.
Free Space in an index is never reused.
At the time it was commonly thought that indexes needed regular rebuilding to avoid fragmentation. The best work I am aware of that describes why this is not the case is Richard Foote’s Index Internals: Rebuilding the Truth paper. Over time more and more people have come to quote this work and it is often cited in discussions on the forums at OTN and elsewhere. Recently I have noticed a tendency for people to produce answers like the one in this answer. Namely
In Enterprise Manager, the section named “Segment Advisor” can to help you
This it seems to me is a fundamental misunderstanding of what the segment advisor is showing you, and sadly is my second myth rising anew from the dead. The official documentation on the segment advisor describes it as
Over time, updates and deletes on objects within a tablespace can create pockets of empty space that individually are not large enough to be reused for new data. This type of empty space is referred to as fragmented free space.
Objects with fragmented free space can result in much wasted space, and can impact database performance. The preferred way to defragment and reclaim this space is to perform an online segment shrink. This process consolidates fragmented free space below the high water mark and compacts the segment. After compaction, the high water mark is moved, resulting in new free space above the high water mark. That space above the high water mark is then deallocated. The segment remains available for queries and DML during most of the operation, and no extra disk space need be allocated.
You use the Segment Advisor to identify segments that would benefit from online segment shrink. Only segments in locally managed tablespaces with automatic segment space management (ASSM) are eligible. Other restrictions on segment type exist. For more information, see “Shrinking Database Segments Online”.
If a table with reclaimable space is not eligible for online segment shrink, or if you want to make changes to logical or physical attributes of the table while reclaiming space, then you can use online table redefinition as an alternative to segment shrink. Online redefinition is also referred to as reorganization. Unlike online segment shrink, it requires extra disk space to be allocated. See “Redefining Tables Online” for more information.
In other words the segment advisor is all about reclaiming space. But a B*-Tree index will always tend to have free space within it – and will nearly always be able to reuse that space. Fragmentation as described above, that is unusable free space, does not apply to B*-Tree indexes in general in Oracle (the point of my previous post was to show one situation where it can be an issue) . To run the segment advisor on an index then is fundamentally misguided. As the next section describes the advisor is really intended for objects that actually store data (most commonly heap tables).
The Segment Advisor generates the following types of advice:
- If the Segment Advisor determines that an object has a significant amount of free space, it recommends online segment shrink. If the object is a table that is not eligible for shrinking, as in the case of a table in a tablespace without automatic segment space management, the Segment Advisor recommends online table redefinition.
- If the Segment Advisor determines that a table could benefit from compression with the OLTP compression method, it makes a recommendation to that effect. (Automatic Segment Advisor only. See “Automatic Segment Advisor”.)
- If the Segment Advisor encounters a table with row chaining above a certain threshold, it records that fact that the table has an excess of chained rows.
Please don’t lets reinvent the old myths – there’s plenty of room for new ones out there.
Thanks to The Human Fly via Twitter @sjaffarhussain I see that Oracle Corporation have a published note on How to Perform a Database Health Check. (Note 122669.1). I read this with some interest as this is something that I do quite frequently as part of my day job. (If you’d like to get me to [...]
Interesting question on human mistakes was posted on the DBA Managers Forum discussions today.
As human beings, we are sometimes make mistakes. How do you make sure that your employees won’t make mistakes and cause downtime/data loss/etc on your critical production systems?
I don’t think we can avoid this technically, probably working procedures is the solution.
I’d like to hear your thoughts.
I typed my thoughts and as I was finishing, I thought that it makes sense to post it on the blog too so here we go…
The keys to prevent mistakes are low stress levels, clear communications and established processes. Not a complete list but I think these are the top things to reduce the number of mistakes we make managing data infrastructure or for that matter working in any critical environment be it IT administration, aviation engineering or medical surgery field. It’s also a matter of personality fit – depending on your balance between mistakes tolerance and agility required, you will favor hiring one individual or another.
Regardless of how much you try, there are still going to be human errors and you have to account for them in the infrastructure design and processes. The real disasters happen when many things align like several failure combined with few human mistakes. The challenge is to find the right balance between efforts invested in making no mistakes and efforts invested into making your environment errors-proof to the point when risk or human mistake is acceptable to the business.
Those are the general ideas.
Just a few examples of the practical solutions to prevent mistakes when it comes to Oracle DBA:
Some of the items to limit impact of the mistakes:
Both lists can go on very long. Old article authored by Paul Vallee is very relevant top this topic — The Seven Deadly Habits of a DBA…and how to cure them.
Feel free to post your thoughts and example. How do you approach human mistakes in managing production data infrastructure?
For all those who came to my last of my four sessions - 11g New Features for DBAs - I appreciate your taking the time. It was a pleasant surprise to see about 500 people showing up at a lunch time slot on the last day of the conference.
Here is the presentation link. I hope you enjoyed the session and found it useful.
It was my second session at Open World this year. It was full with 332 attendees with a whopping 277 attendees on wait list! the room capacity was 397. Of course, the room did have some fragmentation and not everyone could make it.
Here is the abstract:
There is a world outside the glittering marketing glitz surrounding Oracle 11g. In this session, a DBA and author of the popular 11g New Features series on OTN covers features that stand out in the real world and make your job easier, your actions more efficient and resilient, and so on. Learn the new features with working examples: how to use Database Replay and SQL Performance Analyzer to accurately predict the effect of changes and Recovery Manager (RMAN) Data Recovery Advisor to catch errors and corruption so new stats won't cause issues.
Thank you very much for those who decided to attend. I hope you found it useful. Here is the presentation. You can download it from the Open World site too. Please note, the companion site to see al working examples and a more detailed coverage is still my Oracle 11g New Features Series on Oracle Technology Network.