# Line Numbers

One of the presentations I went to at the DOAG conference earlier on this month was called “PL/SQL Tuning, finding the perf. bottleneck with hierarchical profiler” by Radu Parvu from Finland. If you do a lot of PL/SQL programming and haven’t noticed the dbms_hprof package yet make sure you take a good look at it.

A peripheral question that came up at the end of the session asked about problems with line numbers in pl/sql procedures; why, when you get a run-time error, does the reported line number sometimes look wrong, and how do you find the right line. I can answer (or give at least one reason for) the first part, but not the second part; Julian Dontcheff had an answer for the second bit, but unfortunately I failed to take a note of it.

Here’s the SQL to create, run and list a very simple (and silly) procedure.

```
define m_value = 3
set timing on

create or replace procedure silly
as
m_n number;
begin
for i in 1..1000000 loop
m_n := exp(sqrt(ln(&m_value)));
end loop;
end;
/

execute silly

list

```

Here’s the output I got from running this, and the thing I want you to note is the time it takes to run, and the line number reported for the assignment:

```
Procedure created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00
1  create or replace procedure silly
2  as
3          m_n number;
4  begin
5          for i in 1..1000000 loop
6                  m_n := exp(sqrt(ln(&m_value)));
7          end loop;
8* end;

```

It seems to take my instance o.oo seconds to perform 1,000,000 evaluations of the exponent of the square root of the natural logarithm of 3 at line 6 of the code. But let’s make two changes; first, let’s try that with the value -1 (which is a little careless if you know your logarithms).

```
Procedure created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.02
BEGIN silly; END;

*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-06502: PL/SQL: numeric or value error
ORA-06512: at "TEST_USER.SILLY", line 5
ORA-06512: at line 1

```

Notice that the 6502 error is reported at line 5, not line 6.

Now let’s go back to the value 3, but start the script with the command: alter session set plsql_optimize_level = 0; (the default level is 2, the range is 0 to 3):

```
Session altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

Procedure created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.01
BEGIN silly; END;

*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-06502: PL/SQL: numeric or value error
ORA-06512: at "TEST_USER.SILLY", line 6
ORA-06512: at line 1

```

Reducing the pl/sql optimisation level to zero (or one) results in the the error message reporting the problem at line 6 – which matches our original code. So let’s check the effect of running the code at level zero with a valid number for the input.

```
Session altered.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.00

Procedure created.

Elapsed: 00:00:00.02

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Elapsed: 00:00:24.56

```

The run time for our pl/sql call has gone up from 0.00 seconds to 24.56 seconds.

Like all good compilers the pl/sql compiler had recognised (at level 2) that we were assigning a constant inside a loop, so it had (effectively) rewritten our code to move the assignment outside the loop, effectively swapping lines 6 and 5, storing the change in the “object” level code, but not in the database copy of the source. The benefit we get (from the default settings) is a saving of 25 seconds of CPU, the (small) penalty we pay is that the lines reported for run-time errors aren’t always going to identify the text that caused the problem.